Assessment of air pollution along highways using bioindicators
Contemporary analysis of pollution is based on bioindication methods. Living organisms, mainly lichens, are tests used in environmental methods. Biotest reactions consist on visible micro- and macroscopic morphological and anatomic changes. Visible reactions lead to disorders in reproduction and what follows spreading of population of tested species.
Drastic nature of environmental changes leads to withdrawing of species from areas previously occupied and the reason of withdrawing can be changes in the vegetative reproduction structures of examined biotests.
The aim of the research was to show changes in the amount and morphological structure of labial soralia of Hypogymnia physodesasas a result of transport pollution accumulation (local road 73 and S7 motorway) and the role of acoustic screens in spreading pollutions emitted by motor vehicles. In the research, active bioindication method was used. Results obtained showed significant decrease in the amount of labial sorallia. After six-month exposition there was 47% of sorallia left in the transplants in front of the screen along 73 road, 62% behind the screen and 26% in the transplants in front of the screen along S7 motorway and 47% behind the screen in relation to test samples.
Accumulation of heavy metals examined in thallus of bioindicators is shown in order: Zn>Cr>Co>Pb>Cd behind the screen Zn>Cr>Pb>Co>Cd in front of the screen. Colour changes in areas of labial soralia are: blackening in which EDX analyzer showed the presence of Co, Pb and Cd, whitening with the presence of Pb and Cd and browning with the presence of Co, Zn, Pb, and Cd. All the elements mentioned were found in samples of transplants exposed in front of and behind the screen.