Microscopic changes in thalluses of lichen Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. depending on the distance from the source of spot emission
Industrial development leads to the increased emission of environmental toxins. Organisms known as bioindicators react to them. The drastic reaction in the organisms of bioindicators is so much visible that it is necessary to take effective steps to prevent and/or minimalize the influence of environmental toxins on biotic part of the ecosystem. Their bioindicative effectiveness is the result of specific structure, the way moistness is absorbed, accumulation of pollutions inside thallus and universality of their presence and easiness of sample acquiring. Bioindicator Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. was used in research. Transplantation method that is transplanting lichens from clear area (Borecka Forest ) to areas polluted with anthropogenic factors used allowed to estimate the distance of toxin influence analyzing the number and the kinds of damages of lichen thallus depending on the distance from the source of spot emission. Stereoscopic microscope Nikon SMZ 1500 was used in the research with NIS-Elements BR programme and light microscope Nikon A2100. Biological analysis of the chosen samples showed changes in the condition of transplanted lichen thallus. Negative changes in their condition are colouring, crumbling and deformations of rosettes of thallus. The aim of the research was the analysis of microscopic changes in thallus of the transplanted lichen in diversified distance from the source of spot emission and analysis of severity of microscopic changes in lichen thallus depending on the distance from the source of spot emissionable. Park area is filled with an adequate number of individuals to the habitat possibilities.